Trichinosis is an acute helminthiasis. characterized by fever, rash, swelling of the face and muscle pain.
The causative agent of trichinosis . his species and strains. The disease is caused by the species Trichinella spiralis, a small viviparous nematode .Scientists have done a lot to explore the relationship of host and parasite in the trichinosis, that describes the final stage in the transmission mechanism of invasion – rooting it in the host organism. O. A. Berezantsev thoroughly explored the relationship of intestinal Trichinella to the intestinal mucosa, the ability of their larvae to suppress the reaction of the leucocytes and to induce the formation of host protective capsule.
Trichinae may exist in nature with the participation of several host species. Installed strain differences of Trichinella isolates from hosts of different species. N. N. Ozeretskovskaya, who described a number of outbreaks of human trichinosis, drew attention to the fact that people from infected pork meat, the disease occurs with a short incubation period, pronounced by the clinic and moderate organ damage, and contracted from bear meat – with a long incubation period, moderate clinic and severe organ damage.
Thus the diagnosis of trichinosis from nature, especially from the North, strains of Trichinella impede the slow rate of razvalyayev in the intestine and their imperfect encapsulation in muscle tissue, which leads to hypersensibility of the patient’s body, an intense immunopathological reactions forming heavy organopalladium.
When infected with trichinosis of the same species of mammal from another species intensity of infestation decreases. But on the third passage on one type of host it is practically restored. Trichinella often parasitize the predators. They found among other animals, partly feeding on meat (pigs, rodents, insectivores). Experimentally infected mammals, which in natural conditions is not affected by Trichinella.
V. A. Britvin it was proved the presence of geographical variants by crossing one pair of Trichinella in the intestine of mice. Highlighted were three types of twins: Owen T. spiralis, T. nativi Britov, Boev and T. nelsoni Britov, Boev, T. spiralis is left behind the form that circulates in synanthropic foci (pigs, cats, dogs and commensal rodents), found on all continents (except Australia) in pig areas. T. nativa is widespread in natural foci, mainly in carnivorous mammals in Eurasia and North America, hybridizes with other species of Trichinella. The larvae of this species are very resistant to low temperatures compared to other species. T. nelsoni has been identified in South America from hyenas. This species is also found (skrashivalo) in wild mammals of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and South of Ukraine. It occurs in natural foci. Sometimes hybridizes with T. spiralis, but gives either very small or infertile offspring. Morphologically, these three species are indistinguishable from each other.
In 1972, L. B. harkavy has identified a new species of Trichinella T. pseudospiralis Garkavi, from the raccoon poloskun in the North Caucasus (Dagestan). This species differs from T. spiralis smaller body size. Larvae of T. pseudospiralis are not encapsulated in the muscles. They are developing all the time and are parasitic in the muscle fibres, being intracellular parasites. In this regard, if trichinelloscopy they are almost invisible. These larvae of Trichinella L. B. harkavy has allocated only by digestion of muscles of a raccoon in artificial gastric juice.
It is established that this species can parasitize in a wide range of mammals and birds. He does not hybridize readily with other species of Trichinella. A biometric study demonstrated no significant differences in T. spiralis, T. native T. nelsoni, T. pseudospiralis also.
T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. pseudospiralis are identical in genotype. Among all four species produced by cross-immunity. Undoubtedly all kinds linked to each other by origin. The original form should be considered to be T. pseudospiralis.
The symptoms of trichinosis. The disease begins with a sharp increase in temperature 5-35 days after infection. Swells the face, in medicine there is a term moon face. Edema can sleep 7-30 days. In parallel, can develop pneumonia. pleurisy, meningitis. Frequent exacerbation of gastric ulcers and other chronic diseases.
Diagnosis of trichinosis. Diagnosis is possible on the basis of symptoms and the information that the patient had eaten venison, bear meat or pork in its raw or smoked form. The diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory data.
Treatment of trichinosis. Used mebendazole (vermox). The daily dose of 300 mg given in 3 divided doses after meals, the course of treatment is 7-10 days. At the same time prescribe antihistamines.